"Europe at the Beginning of the 21st Century:
Opportunities and Challenges"
CRC in EU Studies
Director, EU Centre of Excellence
Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
Background paper prepared for final keynote speech at conference at UBC, Vancouver, 19 April 2007
Where are we today?
- Increasing functional scope: From coal and steel to EMU and Political Union
- Increasing membership: From 6 to 27
- Improving institutions: More QMV and EP involvement
How did we get there?
- Spill-over and unintended consequences
- Series of rational grand bargains
- Agency: ideas and leaders
- Further enlargements: towards EU-35 and beyond
- Policy reforms: CAP, employment, etc
- Institutional reforms: efficiency and legitimacy
- Political entrepreneurship
Scenarios for the future
- A wider and stronger Union
- A wider, but weaker Union
- A more flexible Union
- A disintegrating Union